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How to Find Your Correct Road Bike Size

How to Find Your Correct Road Bike Size

There’s nothing worse than riding a bike that doesn’t fit well, but nothing more satisfying than pedalling a bike that does fit well. While there is no substitute for test riding a bike to experience how it actually fits and feels, learning a bit about road bike sizing and fit will help you narrow down the range of sizes to test for the next time you’re road bike shopping.

Bike Geometries

There are three common types of road frames: traditional, compact and semi-compact. Traditional frames have a horizontal top tube and more conventional geometries. Compact frames come with a top tube that slopes downward from the headtube to the seat tube; they tend to have a smaller and thus stiffer front triangle and more standover clearance. Semi-compact frame designs fall somewhere in between traditional and compact frames.

For any of the three types, there is a wide range of frame geometries offered by different manufacturers to suit an equally wide range of riding styles and purposes.

Alvord-Joel Sunderland-27Riding Style

Some road bikes are designed for riders who prefer a more aggressive racing position while others let riders pedal more casually in a more upright position. Generally speaking, racing-oriented riders will like to ride bikes with longer top tubes and more drop between the seat and handlebars while more casual riders will ride bikes with shorter top tubes and less drop to the bars.

Effective Top Tube Length

Although many measurements play a role in bike sizing, the most important measurement is effective top tube length. On a traditional frame, this will be the length of the top tube. On a compact or semi-compact frame, this will be the distance, measured horizontally, between the head tube and the seatpost; it will not be exactly the same as the top tube’s length.

Check out this BikeRadar article for a chart giving rough guidelines for sizing your bike by effective top tube length:

Dialing In The Fit

Once you’ve used effective top tube measurement to narrow down your choices for what size road bikes may fit, it’s time to hop on them and hone your position.

First, check that you can stand comfortably straddling the top tube. For both safety and comfort, you should have several centimeters of clearance.

Next, set your seat height. It’s reasonable to start with your seat about the same height as your hip bones are when standing next to the bike. Then sit on it and pedal. Check that your hips and low back do not rock from side to side. If they do, lower your seat until there is no rocking. Typical knee angles on the extended leg side range from about 25 to 30 degrees, although exact ideal knee angle is often a matter of personal preference.

Once your seat is at the right height, adjust its fore-aft position. Put your pedals in horizontal position, then drop a plumb line from the front center of the kneecap of your forward leg. It should fall roughly over the center of the pedal axle. If your knee is in front of the axle, move your seat rearward and vice versa.

Finally, you can adjust your bike’s reach by changing both the height of the handlebars and how far fore/aft they are positioned relative to the seat. Most bikes will come with spacers that you can move above or below the stem for some instantaneous bar height adjustability, but you may need to swap to an entirely different stem to achieve a significant position change reach-wise. One common rule of thumb is to pick a stem length and angle so that when you sit comfortably on the seat, with hands on the hoods, and look down toward your front wheel, the top of the handlebar line up with the front wheel axle.

Your local bike shop can help you with dialing in your bike positioning and swapping out stems.

Test Ride

Don’t just rely on bike sizing and fitting rules of thumbs. Take your candidate road bike(s) out for a test spin. There is no substitute for actually riding a bike to see how well it fits and handles as you pedal at speed on real roads. Your bike may technically fit “perfectly” but still not handle in a way that suits your riding preferences.


How To Transport A Bike By Plane

How To Transport A Bike By Plane

There’s nothing better than having your own bike with you to ride when you travel, and one way to do so is to bring it with you on the plane. However, flying with a bike is not simple. Read on for some tips about how to travel with your bike.

Box or Case

Before you take your bike on the plane, you will have to pack it in a cardboard box or hard or soft case. The are pros and cons to all three options.

Cardboard boxes are easy to obtain and are typically free from a local bike shop plus they often give you extra space for your cycling or other gear. But they don’t hold up as well to repeated use and will have to be frequently replaced. You also may need to call your local shop well ahead of your trip so that they can save you a box when they next get a new bike shipped to them.

Soft cases are often lightweight and easy to handle but can be expensive, and depending on their design, they may not offer as much protection as a well packed cardboard box or hard case.

Hard cases are typically the most expensive and heaviest option, but they offer the most protection for your bike en route.


To maximize the chances of your bike arriving at your destination undamaged, it’s important to pack your bike well, no matter what kind of case you use. First you’ll have to disassemble your bike, then pad all of its pieces well with foam. You must not only protect the contents inside from damaging each other, but you must also protect against external forces that may be applied as the airlines handle your bike box or case. 

Searching the internet for detailed instructions on how to disassemble and pack your bike will yield lots of suggestions. One such excellent resource comes from Adventure Cycling:


rotor-uno-esteticaFlying with your bike usually will cost you – most airlines charge for transporting your bike. Fees vary hugely by airline and may also be different depending on whether your flight is international or domestic. Contact your airline in advance to find out exactly how much it will cost you so you are not surprised with a large expense upon check-in.

Weight and Size Limits

Airlines often have strict limits on baggage size and weight, and these restrictions also vary by airline. Overweight and/or oversized bike luggage may trigger additional fees above and beyond the airline’s standard bike transport fee. Again, it’s best to contact your airline in advance to obtain a list of potential fees. Then carefully weigh and measure your packed bike before you go to the airport.


In many countries, security and/or customs personnel will insist on opening your case and box and inspecting its contents as part of the normal screening process. Do not lock your case so that security can access it.

Prohibited Substances

Check the prohibited substances list before you load up your bike box or case with all the bike-related gear that you’d typically take with you when travelling by cart. Items like CO2 cartridges and chain lube are often banned. If you attempt to fly with these items, they will likely be confiscated during security inspections.


Airlines typically make you sign a waiver saying they are not responsible for damage to your bike while they are transporting it; yet incidences of such damage are common. You may want to purchase third party insurance for your bike to cover possible damage.

Other Bike Transport Options

Depending on your destination, you may be able to ship your bike there and back for less than it costs to take it on the plane. Yes, you still have to pack your bike when you ship it, but you save the hassle of dragging your bike box or case to and from the airport on either end because you can ship it directly to your destination and have it waiting for you upon arrival.

Training With Power: A Glossary

Training With Power: A Glossary

Serious cyclists are increasingly using power to gauge their training efforts, especially as power meters become not only more technically-capable but also more affordable. Learning the terminology that comes along with training with power can seem intimidating at first, but the glossary of common terms below will help speed your trip up the learning curve.

Power Meter

A device that measures the power you produce while riding.

How they work: A majority of available power meters use strain gauges to quantify how much your bottom bracket, crankset, freehub or pedal axles deform under the force of pedalling. Strain gauges output electrical resistance relative to the amount of mechanical deformation of the component to which they are mounted. The amount of mechanical deformation corresponds to how much torque you are applying to the pedals, and torque and pedalling cadence are used to calculate power.


A product of how much torque you are applying to the pedals and how fast you are pedalling. It is also defined as the rate of energy used or the amount of work done per unit of time. Power is expressed in watts (W).

For those who prefer to think in equations: Power = Work / Time = Force * Displacement / Time = Force * Velocity = Torque * Angular Velocity

Instantaneous Power

The amount of power produced at any given moment.

Average Power

The average amount of power produced over a given period of time, such as during any given workout or race.

Max Power

The maximum amount of power produced during any given period of time, such as during any given workout or race.

Normalized Power

A measure of power calculated using an algorithm that factors in the high and low power outputs that naturally occur when a rider is sprinting, doing intervals, climbing, descending, coasting, etc. It estimates total effort over a given period of time and is considered more accurate than average power by many experts because it better accounts for the actual physiological demands of a given ride.

Threshold Power

The amount of power a rider can sustain for one hour. It is often calculated from the average power output measured during a 20-minute timed effort. Threshold Power is used to calculate training zones, and is sometimes called Functional Threshold Power.


The amount of force applied to the pedals. It is typically expressed in Newton meters (Nm).


How fast you are pedalling. Cadence is usually measured in revolutions per minute or RPMs and can be converted into Angular Velocity, which is usually expressed in radians/second.


The process of setting or correcting a measuring device such as a power meter so that it accurately outputs actual measurements.

Power to Weight Ratio

The amount of power you can produce divided by your weight, often measured in kilograms/watt or pounds/watt. Generally speaking, the higher the power-to-weight ratio, the better the cyclist.

Rotor INpower Powermeter

Rotor INpower Powermeter

Pedalling Cadence: A Tutorial

Pedalling Cadence: A Tutorial

Cyclists pay attention to many different numbers as they evaluate their performance in real time. Among them are distance pedalled, speed, heart rate and power output. Another parameter – one that is often a mystery to newbie cyclists – is pedalling cadence.

What is cadence?

Cadence is defined as the number of revolutions of the crank per minute (rpm). Typical pedalling cadences for trained cyclists range from 85 to 100 rpm. An untrained, recreational cyclist is more likely to pedal at a slower cadence, such as 60 to 70 rpm.

How do I figure out my cadence?

Many bike computers come with sensors that count how many times the cranks go round and display a rider’s cadence. Such sensors are typically mounted on or near the cranks.

But even without a bike computer, you can get a quick estimate of your cadence. Simply pick an interval, such as 30 seconds, and count how many times your legs go around during that period. Then double the number to calculate your cadence.

Why is cadence important?

Power is the product of the force applied to the pedals and cadence. Thus to increase power, you can apply more force to the pedals, pedal faster or do both at the same time. This means that it’s also possible to produce the same amount of power at different cadences – you just have to apply different amounts of force. For example, you can produce a given amount of power by pedalling slowly in a bigger gear or by pedalling faster in a smaller gear.

When you pedal fast in a lower gear, you tend to need less force so it fosters more slow twitch muscle fiber recruitment. The opposite is also true: when you pedal more slowly in a higher gear, you need more force so have to recruit more fast twitch muscle fibers. Generally speaking, pedalling at lower cadences requires relatively more effort from your muscles whereas pedalling at higher cadences requires relatively more effort from your cardiovascular system.

Every cyclists has different strengths and weaknesses; thus some tend to prefer higher cadences while others prefer lower cadences.

Pedalling Cadence

A bit of history

Many cyclists began caring about cadence at the end of the 1990s when Lance Armstrong became famous by winning the Tour de France while pedalling at a conspicuously higher cadence than many of his peers in the pro peloton.

Pros like Armstrong found that pedalling at higher cadences like 100-110 rpm felt more efficient, often helping them with muscular recovery and endurance as well as smoothing out any dead spots in their pedal stroke.

But not every pro goes for super high cadences. Another former Tour de France winner, Jan Ullrich, was famous for his slightly slower pedalling cadence, often in the 80-90 rpm range. When racing side by side with Armstrong, Ullrich appeared to be mashing gears and pedalling slowly.

In the past two decades with the advent of drivetrains including many gear combinations spanning a much larger range, it’s now possible for cyclists to be able to almost always pick the perfect gear to enable them to pedal at their preferred personal cadence, whether they are riding at relatively slower or faster speeds.


ROTOR launches its ‘ROTOR Power’ App for 2INpower

ROTOR launches its ‘ROTOR Power’ App for 2INpower


We proudly announce the release of our highly anticipated ROTOR power application. It shows 2INpower’s big data on your mobile device and allows you to analyze your performance, pedal stroke and post-process your ride.

Q-Rings setup made easy

We consequently developed further our unique TORQUE 360 feature, which allows mapping crank rotation in real time. The ROTOR Power application directly gives an OCP recommendation after the ride in the ride summary. 

The Q-Rings setup procedure is no longer compromised, as Q-Rings users, bike shops and bike fitters can use the bike  with Q-Rings mounted on directly on the street. Being on his personal setup in familiar environment during a ride will result in a spot-on OCP setup. 


Application description


Connect your ROTOR 2INpower power meter and your heart rate monitor to your mobile devices via Bluetooth®

Track your ride with our three main App functions – RIDE, BASIC TRAINING MODE and TORQUE 360 mode, the later two known from our ROTOR power meter user software.


Show your power meter, heart rate monitor and GPS data in real time on your mobile device screen. The multiple data screens can be modified by the user. At the end of your ride, record your data as a .fit file in order to export for further analysis. 


02_Basic Training

Display real time performance data in a timeline to structure your training and plan your intervals. See directly how efficient and balanced you are riding.









03_Torque_360Show your pedal stroke in real time thanks to 2INpower’s strain gauges and accelerometer. Analyse directly your pedal stroke with known parameters such as torque efficiency and pedal smoothness. Being on your bike out on the road will show your natural OCA value where you are applying your maximum force on the pedal.

Q-Rings take advantage of this point and our application is giving a spot-on OCP value for easy Q-Rings orientation. 

In addition you can setup and mange your profile in the SERVICE MODE, which also pairs the ROTOR power App to your power meter and heart rate monitor or which set ups your user language. 

Manage your rides and training summaries in the HISTORY function.

The ROTOR 2INpower App creates a folder called ROTOR Power  on your mobile device from where you can also export your rides, which are stored as .fit and .csv files. 


System requirements:

Android 4.4 or later
iOS 9.3 or later
Bluetooth® 4.0
ROTOR 2INpower power meter