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Training With Power: A Glossary

Training With Power: A Glossary

Serious cyclists are increasingly using power to gauge their training efforts, especially as power meters become not only more technically-capable but also more affordable. Learning the terminology that comes along with training with power can seem intimidating at first, but the glossary of common terms below will help speed your trip up the learning curve.

Power Meter

A device that measures the power you produce while riding.

How they work: A majority of available power meters use strain gauges to quantify how much your bottom bracket, crankset, freehub or pedal axles deform under the force of pedalling. Strain gauges output electrical resistance relative to the amount of mechanical deformation of the component to which they are mounted. The amount of mechanical deformation corresponds to how much torque you are applying to the pedals, and torque and pedalling cadence are used to calculate power.

Power

A product of how much torque you are applying to the pedals and how fast you are pedalling. It is also defined as the rate of energy used or the amount of work done per unit of time. Power is expressed in watts (W).

For those who prefer to think in equations: Power = Work / Time = Force * Displacement / Time = Force * Velocity = Torque * Angular Velocity

Instantaneous Power

The amount of power produced at any given moment.

Average Power

The average amount of power produced over a given period of time, such as during any given workout or race.

Max Power

The maximum amount of power produced during any given period of time, such as during any given workout or race.

Normalized Power

A measure of power calculated using an algorithm that factors in the high and low power outputs that naturally occur when a rider is sprinting, doing intervals, climbing, descending, coasting, etc. It estimates total effort over a given period of time and is considered more accurate than average power by many experts because it better accounts for the actual physiological demands of a given ride.

Threshold Power

The amount of power a rider can sustain for one hour. It is often calculated from the average power output measured during a 20-minute timed effort. Threshold Power is used to calculate training zones, and is sometimes called Functional Threshold Power.

Torque

The amount of force applied to the pedals. It is typically expressed in Newton meters (Nm).

Cadence

How fast you are pedalling. Cadence is usually measured in revolutions per minute or RPMs and can be converted into Angular Velocity, which is usually expressed in radians/second.

Calibration

The process of setting or correcting a measuring device such as a power meter so that it accurately outputs actual measurements.

Power to Weight Ratio

The amount of power you can produce divided by your weight, often measured in kilograms/watt or pounds/watt. Generally speaking, the higher the power-to-weight ratio, the better the cyclist.

Rotor INpower Powermeter

Rotor INpower Powermeter

Pedalling Cadence: A Tutorial

Pedalling Cadence: A Tutorial

Cyclists pay attention to many different numbers as they evaluate their performance in real time. Among them are distance pedalled, speed, heart rate and power output. Another parameter – one that is often a mystery to newbie cyclists – is pedalling cadence.

What is cadence?

Cadence is defined as the number of revolutions of the crank per minute (rpm). Typical pedalling cadences for trained cyclists range from 85 to 100 rpm. An untrained, recreational cyclist is more likely to pedal at a slower cadence, such as 60 to 70 rpm.

How do I figure out my cadence?

Many bike computers come with sensors that count how many times the cranks go round and display a rider’s cadence. Such sensors are typically mounted on or near the cranks.

But even without a bike computer, you can get a quick estimate of your cadence. Simply pick an interval, such as 30 seconds, and count how many times your legs go around during that period. Then double the number to calculate your cadence.

Why is cadence important?

Power is the product of the force applied to the pedals and cadence. Thus to increase power, you can apply more force to the pedals, pedal faster or do both at the same time. This means that it’s also possible to produce the same amount of power at different cadences – you just have to apply different amounts of force. For example, you can produce a given amount of power by pedalling slowly in a bigger gear or by pedalling faster in a smaller gear.

When you pedal fast in a lower gear, you tend to need less force so it fosters more slow twitch muscle fiber recruitment. The opposite is also true: when you pedal more slowly in a higher gear, you need more force so have to recruit more fast twitch muscle fibers. Generally speaking, pedalling at lower cadences requires relatively more effort from your muscles whereas pedalling at higher cadences requires relatively more effort from your cardiovascular system.

Every cyclists has different strengths and weaknesses; thus some tend to prefer higher cadences while others prefer lower cadences.

Pedalling Cadence

A bit of history

Many cyclists began caring about cadence at the end of the 1990s when Lance Armstrong became famous by winning the Tour de France while pedalling at a conspicuously higher cadence than many of his peers in the pro peloton.

Pros like Armstrong found that pedalling at higher cadences like 100-110 rpm felt more efficient, often helping them with muscular recovery and endurance as well as smoothing out any dead spots in their pedal stroke.

But not every pro goes for super high cadences. Another former Tour de France winner, Jan Ullrich, was famous for his slightly slower pedalling cadence, often in the 80-90 rpm range. When racing side by side with Armstrong, Ullrich appeared to be mashing gears and pedalling slowly.

In the past two decades with the advent of drivetrains including many gear combinations spanning a much larger range, it’s now possible for cyclists to be able to almost always pick the perfect gear to enable them to pedal at their preferred personal cadence, whether they are riding at relatively slower or faster speeds.

 

ROTOR launches its ‘ROTOR Power’ App for 2INpower

ROTOR launches its ‘ROTOR Power’ App for 2INpower

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We proudly announce the release of our highly anticipated ROTOR power application. It shows 2INpower’s big data on your mobile device and allows you to analyze your performance, pedal stroke and post-process your ride.

Q-Rings setup made easy

We consequently developed further our unique TORQUE 360 feature, which allows mapping crank rotation in real time. The ROTOR Power application directly gives an OCP recommendation after the ride in the ride summary. 

The Q-Rings setup procedure is no longer compromised, as Q-Rings users, bike shops and bike fitters can use the bike  with Q-Rings mounted on directly on the street. Being on his personal setup in familiar environment during a ride will result in a spot-on OCP setup. 

 

Application description

01_Home

Connect your ROTOR 2INpower power meter and your heart rate monitor to your mobile devices via Bluetooth®

Track your ride with our three main App functions – RIDE, BASIC TRAINING MODE and TORQUE 360 mode, the later two known from our ROTOR power meter user software.

RIDE:

Show your power meter, heart rate monitor and GPS data in real time on your mobile device screen. The multiple data screens can be modified by the user. At the end of your ride, record your data as a .fit file in order to export for further analysis. 

BASIC TRAINING MODE:

02_Basic Training

Display real time performance data in a timeline to structure your training and plan your intervals. See directly how efficient and balanced you are riding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TORQUE 360 MODE:

03_Torque_360Show your pedal stroke in real time thanks to 2INpower’s strain gauges and accelerometer. Analyse directly your pedal stroke with known parameters such as torque efficiency and pedal smoothness. Being on your bike out on the road will show your natural OCA value where you are applying your maximum force on the pedal.

Q-Rings take advantage of this point and our application is giving a spot-on OCP value for easy Q-Rings orientation. 

In addition you can setup and mange your profile in the SERVICE MODE, which also pairs the ROTOR power App to your power meter and heart rate monitor or which set ups your user language. 

Manage your rides and training summaries in the HISTORY function.

The ROTOR 2INpower App creates a folder called ROTOR Power  on your mobile device from where you can also export your rides, which are stored as .fit and .csv files. 

 

System requirements:

Android 4.4 or later
iOS 9.3 or later
Bluetooth® 4.0
ROTOR 2INpower power meter

Single or Double Chainrings: Which is Better for Mountain Biking?

Single or Double Chainrings: Which is Better for Mountain Biking?

Look around on your next mountain bike group ride, and you’ll probably see a mix of drivetrain setups. Some riders will be using single chainring setups while others will be pedalling double chainrings. In this article, we look at the advantages of each setup to help you determine which is better for you.

Wait, haven’t we be through this before?

Yes! The debate about the optimal number of front chainrings is not new. Mountain bikes used to come standard with a triple drivetrain setup including three front chainrings and a rear cassette.

However, as rear cassettes gradually picked up gears over time, growing from six to 11 in number, cyclists eventually figured out that they were pedalling around many duplicate gears and that they could still cover a similar gearing range with just two front chainrings – hence, the widespread adoption of the double front chainring setup.

Leading drivetrain manufacturers now offer as many as 12-speed cassettes as well as higher tech derailleurs that incorporate clutch mechanisms to reduce chain slap. Thus riders are again in a similar position of debating the pros and cons of eliminating one more chainring.

Advantages of a Single Ring Setup

It’s lighter. One less chainring and cable and no front derailleur mean your bike weighs less.

Shifting is simpler. You no longer have to worry about possibly dropping your chain when shifting between front rings. This is a big advantage, especially for racers shifting under pressure and for less experienced riders who lack confidence and skill to reliably use their front shifter with success.

It requires less maintenance. You’ll have fewer chainrings to replace when they wear out, and you’ll never need to adjust your front derailleur again during installation or as your cable would have inevitably stretched over time.

Cleaner cockpit. With one less shifter, your cockpit is less cluttered, and you free up one hand which can instead be devoted to operating your dropper post control.

Advantages of a Double Ring Setup

You have a larger range of gears. Because there are twice as many gears, it’s easier to spec them to cover a larger range. Having more gears at the low end makes it easier to tackle longer and steeper climbs. Having more gears at the high end means you can pedal down fast descents without spinning out.

Your pedalling may be more efficient. With twice as many gears, spacing between gears is typically smaller. If you are the kind of rider who is always shifting one gear up or down to maintain your optimal cadence, you will be more likely to always find the perfect gear at any moment.
You are more likely to have a better chainline. With two chainrings, you have more gear choices and can avoid poor chainlines, which means pedalling is quieter, requires less effort and causes less wear on your drivetrain.
Chainrings will not have to be replaced as often. Unless you always ride in just one of your two rings, normal wear and tear will be distributed over two chainrings, so you’ll have to replace them less often than if you were running one ring.

Do the Math

Still undecided? There is no substitute for sitting down with a gear calculator (such as http://www.sheldonbrown.com/gear-calc.html) and running the numbers on potential single and double chainring setups. Take the time to figure out your gear ratios or rollouts for your current and proposed setup. Then you’ll have a much better idea of how that potential new drivetrain will actually feel out on the trail before you invest the time and money to switch it.

Tips for riding in the rain

Tips for riding in the rain

Love it or hate it, all cyclists eventually end up riding in the rain. Fortunately, there are lots of tricks to making the experience of wet weather cycling more enjoyable and safer. Here we offer pro tips about what you should do before, during and after your next rainy ride.

Before your ride


Dress Smart

Start with a warm, wicking base layer such as a wool jersey, add intermediate insulating layers if needed and top it all off with a rain jacket. When it comes to jackets and tights, know the difference between water resistant and waterproof. Water resistant clothing tends eventually soak through but is more breathable while less permeable waterproof garments are typically better at keeping the wet out at the cost of not breathing as well.

To keep your extremities dry, don waterproof gloves and cycling socks or shoe covers. For added warmth on the cold, wet days, add chemical hand and toe warmers inside your gloves and shoes. Or use a pair of rechargeable electric heated insoles in your shoes.

Last but not least, something as simple as a pair of the light, but highly portable Rainlegs will help your upper legs stay dry.

See and Be Seen

Poor visibility comes along with wet conditions, so it’s important to do what you can to improve your chances of being seen by passing motorists and other road or trail users. Wear reflective or high visibility clothing, and add lights and reflectors to your bike. You’ll also see better if you use clear or rose tinted lenses in your glasses instead of the dark lenses typical of sunglasses.

Add Fenders

Avoid road spray and trail muck coming up and off your wheels by adding front and rear fenders to your bike. Many modern fenders feature clever attachments for easy mounting and removal, which is ideal if you don’t want to permanently install them.

Road Cycling Rain

Road Cycling Rain

During your ride


Adjust Your Braking Behavior

Wet conditions mean less traction so you’ll need to allow greater stopping distances and take your corners more slowly. Start to brake sooner and modulate your braking to reduce the chance that your wheels will lock up and subsequently slip out due to broken traction. Also scrub speed before corners rather than braking in them. Finally, don’t brake on slippery surfaces like painted lines on roads and on metal grate and wooden bridges. These become like ice when wet.

Keep Moving

When you get wet, you’re more susceptible to getting cold. Hypothermia can quickly become a real issue in cold, wet conditions. So keep moving and avoid prolonged stops because your body naturally produces heat while you exercise.

Avoid Slick Spots and Puddles

Puddles can hide potholes or other road debris that can cause flats and crashes. Pedal around puddles if possible. Likewise, avoid visibly slick spots such as where you see residues of oil or gas on the road.

After your ride


Change Promptly

Change into dry clothes as soon as possible after you stop riding. You’ll not only stay warmer but also healthier by eliminating conditions favorable to skin infections. Once changed, don’t let your wet clothes linger; instead rinse them outside using a hose to remove grime then put them directly in the laundry for a more thorough cleaning.

Clean and Lube Your Bike

It’s much easier to get dirt and road grime off your bike before it dries on. Use a hose, soap and a brush, sponge or cloth for best results. Once you’ve cleaned your bike, don’t just put it away. Be sure first to lube all moving parts like your chain, pedals and any accessible cables. Your bike will then be much more likely to work well for your next ride.

Dry Your Gear

Don’t forget to dry out your small bits such as the contents of your jersey pockets, saddle bags and backpacks. Your helmets and shoes will also hold up better over time if you leave them out to air dry. Removing insoles and stuffing your shoes with old newspaper is a time tested trick for speeding up the drying process.

ROTOR Bike Components premieres on TV with a Eurosport campaign

ROTOR Bike Components premieres on TV with a Eurosport campaign


We are launching our first TV campaign on Eurosport, the number one sports channel in Europe showing the most important sporting events in the world.



 

The ROTOR campaign started on Eurosport last 5th March and will be broadcast over the next 6 months in 54 countries including Spain, England, Ireland, France, Italy, Russia, Scandinavia, Denmark and Poland. With this spot, ROTOR will be on screen during the greatest races on the cycling calendar including the Tour de France, the Giro d’Italia and the Vuelta a España.



Eurosport is the channel which dedicates more time to cycling with more than 200 days of showings. It is the number one sports channel in Europe, feeding the fans’ passion and connecting them with the most important sporting events in the world. Eurosport’s global audience is 15 million people per week.



For ROTOR, this is a great opportunity to increase brand awareness through a channel which is very fond of cycling. “ROTOR is transforming the way in which it links the road and mountain bike users with its products. This process began a few months ago with the redesign of the website (www.rotorbike.com), where detailed information on all ROTOR products is available. Now, we will continue the process with the TV spot which aims to bring the brand closer to the most demanding of cyclists, who value the most innovative equipment such as our oval chainrings, powermeters or hydraulic groupset”.



 

Watch 1 minute version of the spot. Enjoy it!