What you need to know about Hubs Axles
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Hubs axles play a crucial role in holding bicycle wheels together. They connect to the rim through spokes and incorporate bearings that allow the wheels to rotate around an axle. Additionally, hubs serve as the mounting point for cassettes and disc brakes. Considering the tremendous force exerted by riders, it's remarkable how much functionality is packed into these compact components.
Over the years, bicycle hub standards, measurements, and features have evolved in tandem with advancements in cycling technology.
In the past, hub standards were relatively straightforward. Around 15 years ago, most bikes utilized small-diameter quick-release skewers that passed through the hubs. Road bikes typically had a front hub width of 100 mm and a rear hub width of 130 mm, while mountain bikes commonly featured a hub width of 100 mm in the front and 135 mm in the rear.
However, the introduction of larger diameter and stiffer thru-axles brought some complexity. Thru-axles prompted a shift in mountain bike standards, with a standardized 15 x 100 mm axle size for the front and 12 x 142 mm for the rear.
During this time, rim brakes were prevalent, meaning hubs didn't require brake rotor mounts on the rear. But even that was undergoing changes.